Mosquito control includes eliminating sites where mosquitoes can breed, and killing adult mosquitoes and larvae by using insecticides in areas with high mosquito density.
The vaccine has been used for many decades and is safe and affordable, providing effective immunity against yellow fever within 10 days for more than 90% of people vaccinated and within 30 days for 99% of people vaccinated.They will experience high fever, jaundice, and abdominal pain with vomiting and deteriorating kidney function.Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach, with blood appearing in vomit and faeces.Travellers, who have medical grounds for not being vaccinated, must have those grounds certified by the appropriate authorities.Many countries require proof of vaccination against yellow fever before they will issue a visa, particularly if travellers come from or have visited a country where yellow fever occurs.
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To confirm a suspected diagnosis of yellow fever, laboratory tests need to be done.Blood tests can detect antibodies produced in response to yellow fever, proving that the person has been infected or vaccinated.The disease cannot be spread by contact from one person to another.Mosquitoes breed in tropical rainforests, humid, and semi-humid environments, as well as around bodies of still water in and close to human habitations in urban settings.Increased contact between humans and infected mosquitoes, particularly in urban areas where people have not been vaccinated for yellow fever, can create epidemics.
The first, "acute", phase usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting.
Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose (especially during the early stages) because its symptoms can be confused with other common diseases such as malaria, dengue, leptospirosis and Zika virus, as well as with poisoning.
Doctors or clinicians who see a sick patient may not be able to tell that they have yellow fever from their symptoms alone, especially if they are in an area where many of these diseases are occurring at the same time.
Infected travellers from areas where yellow fever occurs can export cases to countries that are free of yellow fever, but the disease can only spread easily if that country has the mosquito species able to transmit it, specific climatic conditions and the animal reservoir needed to maintain it.
The yellow fever virus is transmitted by infected mosquitoes, most commonly from the Aedes species – the same mosquito that spreads the Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue virus.